A BIBLICAL CONSTITUTION

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A Biblical Constitution
A Scriptural Replacement for Secular Government

Preface

The United States Constitutional Republic was destined to fall from its inception. This is borne out in the following two passages:

And every one that heareth these sayings of mine, and doeth them not, shall be likened unto a foolish man, which built his house upon the sand: And the rain descended, and the floods came, and the winds blew, and beat upon that house; and it fell: and great was the fall of it. (Matthew 7:26-27)

[E]very kingdom divided against itself is brought to desolation; and every city or house divided against itself shall not stand. (Matthew 12:25)

The house known as the Constitutional Republic was not built upon the rock of Yahweh’s1 word, but instead upon Enlightenment and Masonic concepts.2 It began and continues as a divided house:

Be ye not unequally yoked together with unbelievers: for what fellowship hath righteousness with unrighteousness? and what communion hath light with darkness? And what concord hath Christ with Belial? or what part hath he that believeth with an infidel? And what agreement hath the temple of God with idols? for ye are the temple of the living God; as God hath said, I will dwell in them, and walk in them; and I will be their God, and they shall be my people. Wherefore come out from among them, and be ye separate, saith the Lord....
(2 Corinthians 6:14-17)

The day is therefore approaching when the Republic’s cup of iniquity will be full3 and Yahweh’s longsuffering is exhausted. At that time, the Republic will be subjected to His judgment. Like all nations before her built on sand, she will cease to exist. The question that remains is whether that generation’s Christians will be prepared to build upon her ruins. If not, another ungodly nation will fill the void until finally a future generation of our posterity are prepared to erect a government and society upon Yahweh’s righteousness as expressed in His triune moral law (His commandments, statutes, and judgments).4

It is therefore incumbent upon this and all intervening generations of Christians to do everything in their power to help prepare for that future generation of Christians to do it right(eous) the next time.

The following biblical replacement for the U.S. Constitution’s Preamble and first three Articles is but one attempt to that end. I submit it as only a suggested foundational charter for the implementation of Yahweh’s Constitution codified in His moral laws. It is far from a perfect or complete document.5 It can and should be improved upon. It is my hope that it will serve to inspire others to do just that. Much of what will have to be accomplished when the time arrives for implementation will rest upon those given the responsibility of enacting Yahweh’s law as the standard for their society.

Ted R. Weiland

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1. YHWH, the English transliteration of the Tetragrammaton, is most often pronounced Yahweh. It is the principal Hebrew name of the God of the Bible and was inspired to appear nearly 7,000 times in the Old Testament. Regrettably, it was unlawfully deleted by the English translators. In obedience to the Third Commandment and the Scriptures that charge us to proclaim, swear by, praise, extol, call upon, bless, glorify, and hold fast to His name, we have chosen to memorialize His name here in this document and in our lives. For a more thorough explanation concerning important reasons for using the sacred name of God, see Thou shalt not take the name of YHWH thy God in vain, the third booklet in a series of booklets on each of the Ten Commandments and their respective statutes and judgments.

2. Bible Law vs. the United States Constitution: The Christian Perspective

3. “And he [Yahweh] said unto Abram, Know of a surety that thy seed shall be a stranger in a land that is not theirs, and shall serve them; and they shall afflict them four hundred years.... But in the fourth generation they shall come hither again: for the iniquity of the Amorites [the land of whom Israel was to procure] is not yet full.” (Genesis 15:13-16)

4. Law and Kingdom: Their Relevance Under the New Covenant

5. Our series of ten booklets on each of the Ten Commandments and their respective statutes and judgments should also prove helpful in implementing and adjudicating Yahweh’s moral law in our personal and family lives now and as communities in the future.


Preamble

We the people of Almighty God—known biblically by His memorial name Yahweh,1 the one and only Sovereign over all creation2—humbly submit ourselves as individuals, families, churches, and communities to His rule as Judge, Lawgiver, and King.3

We furthermore acknowledge Jesus Christ’s supremacy as King of kings and Lord of lords over ourselves and all nations.4 We recognize the Holy Spirit as our guide unto all truth.5

Because all power and authority reside with Him,6 we acknowledge that liberty, justice, domestic tranquility, and general welfare for ourselves and our posterity can only be achieved as communities by His perfect law and righteous judgments.7

We hereby freely covenant together as His humble servants, bought and paid for by the blood of Christ,8 into a civil body politic for the express purpose of establishing a government of, by, and for Him. This is to be accomplished by implementing His commandments, statutes, and judgments as the only standard for ordering our lives both individually and communally.9 We furthermore look to Him for wisdom, assistance, and protection in conducting His affairs here on earth as it is in heaven.10

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1. “[Y]ahweh God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, hath sent me unto you: this is my name for ever, and this is my memorial unto all generations.” (Exodus 3:15)

2. “[Yahweh] who is the blessed and only Potentate [Sovereign, NASB], the King of kings, and Lord of lords.” (1 Timothy 6:15)

3. “For Yahweh is our judge, Yahweh is our lawgiver, Yahweh is our king; he will save us.” (Isaiah 33:22)

4. “For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace. Of the increase of his government and peace there shall be no end, upon the throne of David, and upon his kingdom, to order it, and to establish it with judgment and with justice from henceforth even for ever....” (Isaiah 9:6-7)

“And Jesus came and spake unto them, saying, All power [authority, NASB] is given unto me in heaven and in earth.” (Matthew 28:18)

5. “[T]he Spirit of truth ... will guide you into all truth....” (John 16:13)

6. “God hath spoken once; twice have I heard this; that power belongeth unto God.”
(Psalm 62:11)

“To the only wise God our Saviour, be glory and majesty, dominion and power, both now and ever. Amen.” (Jude 1:25)

7. “The law of Yahweh is perfect, converting the soul: the testimony of Yahweh is sure, making wise the simple. The statutes of Yahweh are right, rejoicing the heart: the commandment of Yahweh is pure, enlightening the eyes. The fear of Yahweh is clean, enduring for ever: the judgments of Yahweh are true and righteous altogether. More to be desired are they than gold, yea, than much fine gold: sweeter also than honey and the honeycomb. Moreover by them is thy servant warned: and in keeping of them there is great reward.” (Psalm 19:7-11)

8. “For ye are bought with a price: therefore glorify God in your body, and in your spirit, which are God’s.” (1 Corinthians 6:20)

“Ye are bought with a price; be not ye the servants of men.” (1 Corinthians 7:23)

9. “Behold, I have taught you statutes and judgments, even as Yahweh my God commanded me, that ye should do so in the land.... Keep therefore and do them; for this is your wisdom and your understanding in the sight of the nations, which shall hear all these statutes, and say, Surely this great nation is a wise and understanding people. For what nation is there so great, who hath God so nigh unto them, as Yahweh our God is in all things that we call upon him for? And what nation is there so great, that hath statutes and judgments so righteous as all this law, which I set before you this day?” (Deuteronomy 4:5-8)

10. “Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done in earth, as it is in heaven.” (Matthew 6:10)

“But seek ye first the kingdom of God, and his righteousness; and all these things shall be added unto you.” (Matthew 6:33)


Article 1

All executive authority resides in Almighty God and is, therefore, vested in Almighty God by Almighty God.

Isaiah 33:22 declares Yahweh is King.1 He has never abdicated His throne.2 He is as much King now as He was at creation3 and at the time Isaiah affirmed His sovereignty. As perpetual King, the kingdom He rules over is also perpetual.4

When, in 1 Samuel 8, the Israelites sought an earthly king, Yahweh gave them the desires of their hearts. Nevertheless, they were punished for seeking a covering other than His5 and paid a dear price for their lack of faith in and fidelity to Him.6

We therefore do not seek an earthly king (president or monarch) to reside over kingdom affairs.7 In the tradition of Gideon and our 17th-century Christian American forebears, we commit ourselves to Yahweh alone as our sovereign.8

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1. “For Yahweh is our judge, Yahweh is our lawgiver, Yahweh is our king....” (Isaiah 33:22)

2. “...Yahweh sitteth King for ever.” (Psalm 29:10)

“But Yahweh is the true God, he is the living God, and an everlasting king....”
(Jeremiah 10:10)

“Behold, the days come, saith Yahweh, that I will raise unto David a righteous Branch, and a King shall reign and prosper, and shall execute judgment and justice in the earth. In his days Judah shall be saved, and Israel shall dwell safely: and this is his name whereby he shall be called, Yahweh our righteousness.” (Jeremiah 23:5-6)

“Now unto the King eternal, immortal, invisible, the only wise God, be honour and glory for ever and ever. Amen.” (1 Timothy 1:17)

3. “The earth is Yahweh’s, and the fulness thereof; the world, and they that dwell therein. For he hath founded it upon the seas, and established it upon the floods.” (Psalm 24:1-2)

4. “Thy kingdom is an everlasting kingdom, and thy dominion endureth throughout all generations.” (Psalm 145:13)

“For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace. Of the increase of his government and peace there shall be no end, upon the throne of David, and upon his kingdom, to order it, and to establish it with judgment and with justice from henceforth even for ever....” (Isaiah 9:6-7)

“To the only wise God our Saviour, be glory and majesty, dominion and power, both now and ever. Amen.” (Jude 1:25)

5. “Woe to the rebellious children, saith Yahweh, that take counsel, but not of me; and that cover with a covering,* but not of my spirit, that they may add sin to sin.” (Isaiah 30:1)

*The Hebrew word nacak, translated “covering,” is indicative of anointing a king (Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance).

6. 1 Samuel 8; 1 Samuel 10:17-19; Hosea 13:9-11

7. “...[Yahweh] who is the blessed and only Potentate [Sovereign, NASB], the King of kings, and Lord of lords.” (1 Timothy 6:15)

8. “Gideon said unto them, I will not rule over you ... Yahweh shall rule over you. ”
(Judges 8:23)

“God was their King; and they regarded him as truly and literally so….” William Holmes McGuffey, McGuffey’s Sixth Eclectic Reader (New York, NY: American Book Company, 1879) p. 225.

Article 2

Section 1. All legislative authority resides in Almighty God and is, therefore, vested in Almighty God by Almighty God.

Isaiah 33:22 and James 4:12 declare Yahweh is the exclusive legislator.1 There are no others. Anyone who claims the title of legislator (particularly when his “laws”—whether commandments, statutes, or judgments—are inconsonant with Yahweh’s) is a usurper and is perpetuating the same anarchy initiated by Adam and Eve. Anarchy is a state of society without government or law. Because all legitimate law originates with Yahweh, any “legislation” not in accord with His amounts to an act of treason against God Almighty and, therefore, His kingdom.

Yahweh is the only lawgiver because as Creator and Sovereign He is the only one with the authority to determine what is good and what is evil. This is true, not because we recognize it as such, but because it is His innate right as the only ever living I am that I am.2

Because there is only one true God,3 there is only one standard for morality. As the source of morality, Yahweh is the author of all true law and, therefore, holds the monopoly on legislation. Because legislation enacts morality, morality and legislation are indivisible.

Any legislation antithetical to Yahweh’s is tantamount to calling good evil and evil good.4 It amounts to a usurpation of His divine jurisdiction. When man rejects Yahweh’s standard of morality, he invariably makes legal what God has made unlawful and illegal what He has made lawful, making a mockery of His authority. Case in point: Any government that does not recognize Yahweh’s exclusive legislative authority.

His triune moral law cannot be improved upon because it is perfect.5 It is unlawful for man to amend or repeal it in whole or in part.6 Because Yahweh’s moral law is perfect, any endeavor to improve upon it is an attempt to dethrone Yahweh and commandeer His throne.

Section 2. Because it is impossible for man to make law, he is either a usurper or merely an administrator of Yahweh’s law. Administrators (not to be confused with judges) are law finders, not lawmakers. An administrator’s responsibility is to assist in implementing Yahweh’s law (government) here on earth at all levels of society—individually, domestically, and civilly. Every Christian man should be an administrator of Yahweh’s law on at least the first two levels.

Administrators represent Yahweh, not the people or any one person. It is their duty to search out the law of Yahweh as it applies to any particular situation, and then to teach and implement the law(s) appropriate to that situation or need.7

This does not mean supplementary stipulations cannot be implemented, provided they are consonant with Yahweh’s prescribed law. For example, a father, who governs his family under God’s authority and by His law has the liberty to implement house rules, such as hygienic and household chores. The same is true on all other levels of society.

Today’s technology did not exist when Moses codified Yahweh’s moral laws. Therefore, additional stipulations are required for these new conditions under and in accord with God’s case laws (His statutes and judgments). Provided such regulations do not conflict with Yahweh’s moral law, they are perfectly acceptable. Biblical precedents are found in Nehemiah’s lots,8 Jeremiah’s land deeds,9 Rachab’s patriarchal requisites,10 and Mordechai’s Purim celebration,11 none of which are directly provided for in the commandments or statutes.

Section 3. Civil administrators shall be composed of biblically qualified men12 (thirty years to fifty years of age13), who will remain such so long as they aspire to the position,14 and provided they remain biblically qualified.

Civil administrators are to be nominated by men from their immediate community who can personally attest to the nominees’ biblical qualifications.15 When there are more candidates than positions, nominees shall be elected by Yahweh via casting lots.16

The number of administrators shall be determined by each and every local community, as their needs require. Communities might be well-advised to consult the numerical model for judges in Exodus 18 as a guide for administrators as well—that is, one administrator for every ten families.17

Civil administrators (like judges) are to be compensated for their time and services from tithes and freewill offerings.18

Section 4. If, at any point during his tenure, a civil administrator becomes biblically unqualified, it is then incumbent upon the men of his community to remove him from office (and have him prosecuted if his offense so dictates), lest the community become complicit in any misuse of his position as administrator.19

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1. “For Yahweh is our judge, Yahweh is our lawgiver, Yahweh is our king....” (Isaiah 33:22)

“There is [only, NASB] one lawgiver....” (James 4:12)

2. “And God said unto Moses, I AM THAT I AM: and he said, Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, I AM hath sent me unto you.” (Exodus 3:14)

3. “For though there be that are called gods, whether in heaven or in earth, (as there be gods many, and lords many,) but to us there is but one God, the Father, of whom are all things, and we in him; and one Lord Jesus Christ, by whom are all things, and we by him.”
(1 Corinthians 8:5-6)

4. “Woe unto them that call evil good, and good evil; that put darkness for light, and light for darkness; that put bitter for sweet, and sweet for bitter! ...because they have cast away the law of Yahweh of hosts, and despised the word of the Holy One of Israel.” (Isaiah 5:20, 24)

5. “The law of Yahweh is perfect, converting the soul: the testimony of Yahweh is sure, making wise the simple. The statutes of Yahweh are right, rejoicing the heart: the commandment of Yahweh is pure, enlightening the eyes. The fear of Yahweh is clean, enduring for ever: the judgments of Yahweh are true and righteous altogether. More to be desired are they than gold, yea, than much fine gold: sweeter also than honey and the honeycomb. Moreover by them is thy servant warned: and in keeping of them there is great reward.” (Psalm 19:7-11)

6. “Ye shall not add unto the word which I command you, neither shall ye diminish ought from it, that ye may keep the commandments of Yahweh your God which I command you.” (Deuteronomy 4:2)

7. “For Ezra had prepared his heart to seek the law of Yahweh, and to do it, and to teach in Israel statutes and judgments.” (Ezra 7:10)

“And Ezra the scribe stood upon a pulpit of wood ... [and] opened the book in the sight of all the people.... Also ... Levites, caused the people to understand the law.... So they read in the book in the law of God distinctly, and gave the sense, and caused them to understand the reading.” (Nehemiah 8:4-8)

8. Nehemiah 10:34

9. Jeremiah 32:9-14

10. Jeremiah 35:5-19

11. Esther 9

12. “[T]hou shalt provide out of all the people able men, such as fear God, men of truth, hating covetousness....” (Exodus 18:21)

“Take you wise men, and understanding, and known among your tribes, and ... make them rulers over you.” (Deuteronomy 1:13)

“Thou shalt in any wise set him king over thee, whom Yahweh thy God shall choose: one from among thy brethren shalt thou set king over thee: thou mayest not set a stranger over thee, which is not thy brother. But he shall not multiply horses to himself.... Neither shall he multiply wives to himself, that his heart turn not away: neither shall he greatly multiply to himself silver and gold. ...he shall write him a copy of this law in a book.... And it shall be with him, and he shall read therein all the days of his life: that he may learn to fear Yahweh his God, to keep all the words of this law and these statutes, to do them: That his heart be not lifted up above his brethren, and that he turn not aside from the commandment, to the right hand, or to the left.” (Deuteronomy 17:15-20)

“The God of Israel said ... He that ruleth over men must be just, ruling in the fear of God. And he shall be as a light of the morning, when the sun riseth, even a morning without clouds; as the tender grass springing out of the earth by clear shining after rain.” (2 Samuel 23:3-4)

“[Jehoshaphat] said to the judges, Take heed what ye do: for ye judge not for man, but for Yahweh, who is with you in the judgment. Wherefore now let the fear of Yahweh be upon you; take heed and do it: for there is no iniquity with Yahweh our God, nor respect of persons, nor taking of gifts. ...Thus shall ye do in the fear of Yahweh, faithfully, and with a perfect heart.”
(2 Chronicles 19:6-9)

“[T]heir nobles shall be of themselves, and their governor shall proceed from the midst of them....” (Jeremiah 30:21)

“Wherefore, brethren, look ye out among you seven men of honest report, full of the Holy Ghost and wisdom, whom we may appoint over this business.” (Acts 6:3)

“For rulers are not a terror to good works, but to the evil.... For he is the minister of God to thee for good ... he beareth not the sword in vain: for he is the minister of God, a revenger to execute wrath upon him that doeth evil.” (Romans 13:3-4)

See also 1 Timothy 3:1-13 and Titus 1:5-9.

13. “From thirty years old and upward even unto fifty years old shalt thou number them, every one that entereth into the service, to do the work of the tabernacle of the congregation.” (Numbers 4:30)

14. “This is a true saying, If a man desire the office of a bishop [elder or overseerer], he desireth a good work.” (1 Timothy 3:1)

“The elders which are among you I exhort.... Feed the flock of God which is among you, taking the oversight thereof, not by constraint, but willingly; not for filthy lucre, but of a ready mind; neither as being lords over God’s heritage, but being ensamples to the flock.” (1 Peter 5:1-3)

15. “Moreover thou shalt provide out of all the people able men, such as fear God, men of truth, hating covetousness; and place such over them, to be rulers of thousands, and rulers of hundreds, rulers of fifties, and rulers of tens.” (Exodus 18:2l)

“Take you wise men, and understanding, and known among your tribes, and I will make them rulers over you.... So I took the chief of your tribes, wise men, and known, and made them heads over you, captains over thousands, and captains over hundreds, and captains over fifties, and captains over tens, and officers among your tribes.” (Deuteronomy 1:13-15)

“Wherefore, brethren, look ye out among you seven men of honest report, full of the Holy Ghost and wisdom, whom we may appoint over this business.” (Acts 6:3)

16. “Thou shalt in any wise set him king over thee, whom Yahweh thy God shall choose: one from among thy brethren shalt thou set king over thee: thou mayest not set a stranger over thee, which is not thy brother.” (Deuteronomy 17:15)

“And when Samuel had caused all the tribes of Israel to come near, the tribe of Benjamin was taken [by lot] ... the family of Matri was taken, and Saul the son of Kish was taken.... And Samuel said to all the people, See ye him whom Yahweh hath chosen....”
(1 Samuel 10:20-24)

“The lot is cast into the lap; but the whole disposing thereof is of Yahweh.” (Proverbs 16:33)

“The lot causeth contentions to cease, and parteth between the mighty.” (Proverbs 18:18)

“And they appointed [put forward, NASB] two, Joseph called Barsabas.... And they prayed, and said, Thou, Lord, which knowest the hearts of all men, shew whether of these two thou hast chosen.... And they gave forth their lots; and the lot fell upon Matthias; and he was numbered with the eleven apostles.” (Acts 1:23-26)

17. “Moreover thou shalt provide out of all the people able men, such as fear God, men of truth, hating covetousness; and place such over them, to be rulers of thousands, and rulers of hundreds, rulers of fifties, and rulers of tens.” (Exodus 18:21)

18. “...give the portion of the priests and the Levites, that they might be encouraged in [devote themselves to, NASB] the law of Yahweh.” (2 Chronicles 31:4)

“...the labourer is worthy of his hire....” (Luke 10:7)

“For for this cause pay ye tribute also: for they are God’s ministers, attending continually upon this very thing. Render therefore to all their dues: tribute [tax, NASB] to whom tribute is due; custom to whom custom; fear to whom fear; honour to whom honour.”
(Romans 13:6-7)

“If we have sown unto you spiritual things, is it a great thing if we shall reap your carnal [material, NASB] things?.... Do ye not know that they which minister about holy things live of the things of the temple? and they which wait at the altar are partakers with the altar? Even so hath the Lord ordained that they which preach [or minister] the gospel should live of the gospel. (1 Corinthians 9:11-14)

“Let the elders that rule well be counted worthy of double honour, especially they who labour in the word and doctrine. For the scripture saith, Thou shalt not muzzle the ox that treadeth out the corn. And, The labourer is worthy of his reward.” (1 Timothy 5:17-18)

19. “Do not lay hands upon anyone too hastily and thus share responsibility for the sins of others; keep yourself free from sin.” (1 Timothy 5:22, NASB)

See also 1 Samuel 14:26-45 and 1 Chronicles 21:1-14.


Article 3

Section 1. All judicial authority resides in Almighty God and is, therefore, vested in Almighty God by Almighty God.

Isaiah 33:22 declares Yahweh is King, Lawgiver, and Judge.1 His sovereignty is inherent in and over all three branches of government. Consequently, any civil judgment not congruent with His perfect law and altogether righteous judgments2 amounts to judicial usurpation and, as such, an act of sedition against Yahweh’s sovereignty.3

Section 2. All viable, dynamic law consists of three integral components: commandments, statutes, and judgments.4 The commandments express the primal, foundational law. The statutes expound upon the commandments. And the judgments enforce the commandments and their respective statutes. Without any one of these three components, the law is crippled. A commandment or statute without a judgment becomes merely good advice.

Whoever defines criminal behavior and dispenses judgments holds dominion in society. Yahweh intends for the judgments to be in the hands of His people.5

Section 3. Yahweh’s judicial order is a graduated system—a magistrate appellate system rather than a litigant appellate system. Difficult cases in lower courts are to be turned over to higher judges (over fifties, hundreds, and thousands)6 for adjudication.

Yahweh’s morality as expressed in His triune law is infallible and therefore immutable. His standard is inalterable and therefore does not change over time or with newly appointed judges. Therefore, except in cases where a higher court discerns a demonstrable error in decision or judgment, a lower court’s decision or judgment cannot be overturned by a higher court. Intervention by a higher court (unless requested by a lower court) is otherwise not allowed.

After a verdict has been rendered, compelling new evidence can be cause for a reversal or a new trial.7

Because delayed judgment diminishes the deterrent effect, all judgments are to be carried out expeditiously.8

Section 4. There is nothing in the Bible that resembles a jury system drawn from the general population. Even with jury nullification (a juror’s right to judge a law as unjust, oppressive, or inapplicable to any particular case) in force, juries invariably render decisions based upon each jury’s collective standard of morality or immorality. Juries are notoriously fickle and produce, at best, erratic justice.

Without Yahweh’s law as the standard, jury decisions are based upon the capricious morality of its members and are just as likely (perhaps even more so) to render bad decisions as they are good decisions. Most people lack the independence and resolution to resist the will of a majority or the presiding judge.9 Juries drawn from the general population put juridical determinations in the hands of an unpredictable and unequally yoked public,10 the majority of whom are likely to be non-Christian.11

Juries drawn from the general population are unlikely to be astute in Yahweh’s law and, therefore, no more apt to render justice than a corrupt judge. Moreover, unlike a corrupt judge who can be removed from his bench, there is no recourse for inept juries.

Section 5. The Bible provides for judges, officers, and magistrates.12

Judges shall be composed of biblically qualified men,13 who will remain in office as long as they aspire to the position,14 are mentally capable, and remain biblically qualified.

Judges must rule in the fear of Yahweh and on His behalf instead of the state or any one race, class, gender, or person. This can only be accomplished when judges’ rulings are based exclusively upon Yahweh’s never-changing morality as reflected in His commandments, statutes, and judgments.15

At the same time, judges must be impartial in their decisions, regardless race, class, gender, or person.16

Section 6. Judges are to be nominated by men from their immediate community who can personally attest to the nominees’ Biblical qualifications.17 When there are more candidates than positions, nominees shall be elected by Yahweh via casting lots.18

The number of judges per local community shall be determined by the numeration provided in Exodus 18.19 With one lower judge for every ten families, speedy trials should prevail.

Judges are to be compensated for their time and services from tithes and freewill offerings.20

Section 7. If during his tenure a judge becomes biblically unqualified, the men of his community must remove him from his bench (and have him prosecuted if his offense so dictates), lest the community become complicit in any misuse of his position as judge.21

If a judge knowingly rules on behalf of a criminal (as the result of being bribed or for any other reason), he is to be impeached and then punished with the same judgment the guilty party would otherwise have incurred.22

Section 8. Depending upon the nature of the crime, Yahweh’s civil laws call for five principal modes of punishment:

1) The death penalty23

2) Retribution (an eye for an eye, tooth for tooth, etc.), with penalties24

3) Restitution, with penalties25

4) Indentured servitude26

5) Floggings27

Except for short-term, pre-trial incarcerations,28 prisons (which are a tax burden upon law-abiding citizens) are superfluous. Bail is likewise redundant. It is also unbiblical.29

The absence of prisons necessitates speedy trials and expeditious punishment.

Testimony is required of all witnesses, including the accused30 and his relatives.31

In addition to the required restitution (two to five times, depending upon the nature of the crime), anyone discovered attempting to cover up his crime must pay an additional twenty percent to his victim.32

Except for two instances, Yahweh’s law does not provide for fines to be paid to the state or government.33 In all other instances, monetary remuneration in the form of fines or penalties is to be paid to the injured party or the relatives of the deceased.34

No one is liable unless injury or damage has occurred to another person or his property. The state cannot be a damaged party. Consequently, there is no liability for such things as speeding or other victimless “crimes.” In instances where death, injury, or damaged property results from reckless negligence (speeding, etc.), liability will be assessed according to Yahweh’s prescribed judgments.

The designation “minor” is a man-made exception. Judgments are to be meted out the same regardless the age or sex of the offender.

Following conviction, anyone (regardless of age, sex, or mental capacity) found guilty of premeditated murder must be put to death.35

For cases other than premeditated murder (including cases requiring an eye for an eye, etc.), monetary indemnity is allowable, at the discretion of the victim’s next of kin.36

Section 9. Stoning is the principle means for execution,37 for the following reasons:

1) Because of its potent deterrent effect.38

2) Because it provides the means for the next of kin (blood avenger),39 witnesses,40 and the community41 to participate in the execution.

The harsher the punishment, the greater the deterrent. People are less likely to commit felonies when the maximum penalty is mandatory for unrepentant criminals. This is especially true if it is compulsory for the entire community to attend and participate in public executions.

When stones are not accessible, firing squads (which also allows for community participation) may be used in substitution of stoning.42

Section 10. Because Yahweh is sovereign over His law order and because judges represent Him, contempt of court (refusal to comply with a judge’s biblical verdict or order) is contempt of God and His law. Contempt of court is, therefore, a capital crime.43 Because contempt of court is a capital crime, noncompliance in non-capital cases will be virtually unheard of.

Section 11. The following six safeguards are to be implemented in all cases. They should all but eliminate false testimony and protect the integrity of the court and its decisions:

1) Defendants are to be given the opportunity to defend themselves against their accusers.44

2) Litigants are required to take self-maledictory oaths by which they call Yahweh to curse them if their testimony is false.45 In some cases, perjury can be considered a Third Commandment infraction and, as such, incur the death penalty.

3) Witnesses (or anyone with pertinent information) to a crime are required to testify, regardless whether they’re married or related to a litigant.46

4) Convictions require two or more witnesses.47

5) Witnesses are required to participate in the execution or flogging of those whom they help convict.48

6) False witnesses are to suffer the same punishment they intend for their victims.49

Section 12. Trials are to be open to the public in easily accessible locations.50 Public trials place judges under the jurisdiction and oversight of the community that nominated them. This helps curb temptation for judicial abuse.

Executions, retributions, and floggings are likewise to be held in public view.51 The community (including sojourning strangers) against which the crime was committed is required to attend and participate in the execution or flogging of convicted criminals.52

Executions are a covenantal community responsibility. The Bible knows nothing of private executions or tax-paid professional executioners, both of which impersonalize crime and diminish the deterrent effect of the death penalty.

Stone piles covering executed criminals are to be left intact in open sight, in order to accentuate and perpetuate the deterrent effect.53

Section 13. Lex talionis, or the law of retribution (an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth, etc.54), mandates equitable retribution and restricts the extent of retaliation in order to keep the punishment proportional to the crime.

Lex talionis is especially important for its potent deterrent effect upon non-capital criminals.55

The inherent liabilities in the “an eye for an eye...” judgment promotes personal responsibility for one’s actions, which, in turn, eliminates the need for insurance companies and encroaching government agencies such as OSHA and the FDA.

Lex talionis also substantially reduces both premeditated crime and careless disregard for the lives and property of others.

Monetary remuneration may be substituted for lex talionis. The amount is to be determined by the victim or next of kin.56

Retribution is required only if the victim demands it, not the state.

In addition to “an eye for an eye...,” the perpetrator of an injury upon another person is also liable for any medical expenses and/or loss of income57 incurred as a consequence of intentional harm or reckless negligence.58 This stipulation is not to include remuneration for any supposed or real pain, suffering, embarrassment, or indignity suffered at the hands of someone else.

__________________________

1. “For Yahweh is our judge, Yahweh is our lawgiver, Yahweh is our king....” (Isaiah 33:22)

2. “The law of Yahweh is perfect.... The statutes of Yahweh are right ... the commandment of Yahweh is pure ... the judgments of Yahweh are true and righteous altogether.”
(Psalm 19:7-9)

3. “[You have] … changed my judgments into wickedness … for they have refused my judgments and my statutes, they have not walked in them. Therefore thus saith the Lord Yahweh; Because ye … have not walked in my statutes, neither have kept my judgments … behold, I, even I, am against thee, and will execute judgments in the midst of thee in the sight of the nations.” (Ezekiel 5:6-8)

“Her princes within her are roaring lions; her judges are evening wolves … they have done violence to the law.” (Zephaniah 3:3-4)

4. “And Yahweh ... declared unto you his covenant, which he commanded you to perform, even ten commandments.... And Yahweh commanded me at that time to teach you statutes and judgments, that ye might do them....” (Deuteronomy 4:12-14)

5. “[J]udgment shall return unto righteousness: and all the upright in heart shall follow it. Who will rise up for me against the evildoers? Or who will stand up for me against the workers of iniquity?” (Psalm 94:15-16)

“Let … a twoedged sword [be] in their hand; to execute vengeance upon the heathen, and punishments upon the people; to bind their kings with chains, and their nobles with fetters of iron; to execute upon them the judgment written: this honour have all his saints. Praise ye Yah.” (Psalm 149:6-9)

“The evil bow before the good; and the wicked at the gates [where court was convened] of the righteous.” (Proverbs 14:19)

“For rulers are not a terror to good works, but to the evil.... For he is the minister of God to thee for good. But if thou do that which is evil, be afraid; for he beareth not the sword in vain: for he is the minister of God, a revenger to execute wrath upon him that doeth evil.”
(Romans 13:3-4)

“Dare any of you, having a matter against another, go to law before the unjust, and not before the saints? Do ye not know that the saints shall judge the world? Know ye not that we shall judge ... things that pertain to this life?” (1 Corinthians 6:1-3)

“[W]e are ready to punish all disobedience, whenever your obedience is complete.”
(2 Corinthians 10:6, NASB)

“But we know that the law is good, if a man use it lawfully; Knowing this, that the law is ... made ... for the lawless and disobedient, for the ungodly and for sinners, for unholy and profane, for murderers of fathers and murderers of mothers, for manslayers, for whoremongers, for them that defile themselves with mankind, for menstealers, for liars, for perjured persons, and if there be any other thing that is contrary to sound doctrine.”
(1 Timothy 1:8-10)

See also Leviticus 26:14-16; Deuteronomy 7:11-12; Proverbs 28:5; and Habakkuk 1:4.

6. “Moreover thou shalt provide out of all the people able men, such as fear God, men of truth, hating covetousness; and place such over them, to be rulers of thousands, and rulers of hundreds, rulers of fifties, and rulers of tens: And let them judge the people at all seasons: and it shall be, that every great matter they shall bring unto thee, but every small matter they shall judge....” (Exodus 18:21-22)

7. “[T]he judges shall make diligent inquisition....” (Deuteronomy 19:18)

8. “Because sentence against an evil work is not executed speedily, therefore the heart of the sons of men is fully set in them [given fully, NASB] to do evil.” (Ecclesiastes 8:11)

9. Thou shalt not follow a multitude to do evil; neither shalt thou speak in a cause to decline after many to wrest judgment.” (Exodus 23:2)

10. “Be ye not unequally yoked together with unbelievers: for what fellowship hath righteousness with unrighteousness? and what communion hath light with darkness? And what concord hath Christ with Belial? or what part hath he that believeth with an infidel? And what agreement hath the temple of God with idols? for ye are the temple of the living God; as God hath said, I will dwell in them, and walk in them; and I will be their God, and they shall be my people. Wherefore come out from among them, and be ye separate, saith the Lord....” (2 Corinthians 6:14-17)

11. “Enter ye in at the strait gate: for wide is the gate, and broad is the way, that leadeth to destruction, and many there be which go in thereat.” (Matthew 7:13)

12. Exodus 18:20-22, 22:9; Deuteronomy 1:16, 16:18, 25:1; Ezra 7:25.

13. “[T]hou shalt provide out of all the people able men, such as fear God, men of truth, hating covetousness....” (Exodus 18:21)

“Take you wise men, and understanding, and known among your tribes, and ... make them rulers over you.” (Deuteronomy 1:13)

“Thou shalt in any wise set him king over thee, whom Yahweh thy God shall choose: one from among thy brethren shalt thou set king over thee: thou mayest not set a stranger over thee, which is not thy brother. But he shall not multiply horses to himself.... Neither shall he multiply wives to himself, that his heart turn not away: neither shall he greatly multiply to himself silver and gold. ...he shall write him a copy of this law in a book.... And it shall be with him, and he shall read therein all the days of his life: that he may learn to fear Yahweh his God, to keep all the words of this law and these statutes, to do them: That his heart be not lifted up above his brethren, and that he turn not aside from the commandment, to the right hand, or to the left.” (Deuteronomy 17:15-20)

“The God of Israel said ... He that ruleth over men must be just, ruling in the fear of God. And he shall be as a light of the morning, when the sun riseth, even a morning without clouds; as the tender grass springing out of the earth by clear shining after rain.” (2 Samuel 23:3-4)

“[Jehoshaphat] said to the judges, Take heed what ye do: for ye judge not for man, but for Yahweh, who is with you in the judgment. Wherefore now let the fear of Yahweh be upon you; take heed and do it: for there is no iniquity with Yahweh our God, nor respect of persons, nor taking of gifts. ...Thus shall ye do in the fear of Yahweh, faithfully, and with a perfect heart.” (2 Chronicles 19:6-9)

“[T]heir nobles shall be of themselves, and their governor shall proceed from the midst of them....” (Jeremiah 30:21)

“Wherefore, brethren, look ye out among you seven men of honest report, full of the Holy Ghost and wisdom, whom we may appoint over this business.” (Acts 6:3)

“For rulers are not a terror to good works, but to the evil.... For he is the minister of God to thee for good ... he beareth not the sword in vain: for he is the minister of God, a revenger to execute wrath upon him that doeth evil.” (Romans 13:3-4)

See also 1 Timothy 3:1-13 and Titus 1:5-9.

14. “This is a true saying, If a man desire the office of a bishop, he desireth a good work.”
(1 Timothy 3:1)

“The elders which are among you I exhort.... Feed the flock of God which is among you, taking the oversight thereof, not by constraint, but willingly; not for filthy lucre, but of a ready mind; neither as being lords over God's heritage, but being ensamples to the flock.”
(1 Peter 5:1-3)

15. “And I charged your judges at that time, saying, Hear the causes between your brethren, and judge righteously between every man and his brother, and the stranger that is with him. Ye shall not respect persons in judgment; but ye shall hear the small as well as the great; ye shall not be afraid of the face of man; for the judgment is God’s….” (Deuteronomy 1:16-17)

“And he [King Jehoshaphat] set judges in the land throughout all the fenced cities of Judah, city by city, and said to the judges, Take heed what ye do: for ye judge not for man, but for Yahweh, who is with you in the judgment…. And he charged them, saying, Thus shall ye do in the fear of Yahweh, faithfully, and with a perfect heart.” (2 Chronicles 19:5-9)

16. “Neither shalt thou countenance a poor man in his cause…. Thou shalt not wrest the judgment of thy poor in his cause. Keep thee far from a false matter…. And thou shalt take no gift [bribe, NASB]: for the gift blindeth the wise, and perverteth the words of the righteous.” (Exodus 23:3-8)

“Ye shall do no unrighteousness in judgment: thou shalt not respect the person of the poor, nor honour the person of the mighty: but in righteousness shalt thou judge thy neighbour.” (Leviticus 19:15)

“Ye shall have one manner of law, as well for the stranger, as for one of your own country: for I am Yahweh your God.” (Leviticus 24:22)

“Ye shall have one law ... both for him that is born among the children of Israel, and for the stranger that sojourneth among them.” (Numbers 15:29)

“Cursed be he that perverteth the judgment of the stranger, fatherless, and widow. And all the people shall say, Amen.” (Deuteronomy 27:19)

17. “Moreover thou shalt provide out of all the people able men, such as fear God, men of truth, hating covetousness; and place such over them, to be rulers of thousands, and rulers of hundreds, rulers of fifties, and rulers of tens.” (Exodus 18:2l)

“Take you wise men, and understanding, and known among your tribes, and I will make them rulers over you.... So I took the chief of your tribes, wise men, and known, and made them heads over you, captains over thousands, and captains over hundreds, and captains over fifties, and captains over tens, and officers among your tribes.” (Deuteronomy 1:13-15)

“Wherefore, brethren, look ye out among you seven men of honest report, full of the Holy Ghost and wisdom, whom we may appoint over this business.” (Acts 6:3)

18. “Thou shalt in any wise set him king over thee, whom Yahweh thy God shall choose: one from among thy brethren shalt thou set king over thee: thou mayest not set a stranger over thee, which is not thy brother.” (Deuteronomy 17:15)

“And when Samuel had caused all the tribes of Israel to come near, the tribe of Benjamin was taken [by lot] ... the family of Matri was taken, and Saul the son of Kish was taken.... And Samuel said to all the people, See ye him whom Yahweh hath chosen....”
(1 Samuel 10:20-24)

“The lot is cast into the lap; but the whole disposing thereof is of Yahweh.” (Proverbs 16:33)

“The lot causeth contentions to cease, and parteth between the mighty.” (Proverbs 18:18)

“And they appointed [put forward, NASB] two, Joseph called Barsabas.... And they prayed, and said, Thou, Lord, which knowest the hearts of all men, shew whether of these two thou hast chosen.... And they gave forth their lots; and the lot fell upon Matthias; and he was numbered with the eleven apostles.” (Acts 1:23-26)

19. “Moreover thou shalt provide out of all the people able men, such as fear God, men of truth, hating covetousness; and place such over them, to be rulers of thousands, and rulers of hundreds, rulers of fifties, and rulers of tens.” (Exodus 18:21)

20. “...give the portion of the priests and the Levites, that they might be encouraged in [devote themselves to, NASB] the law of Yahweh.” (2 Chronicles 31:4)

“...the labourer is worthy of his hire....” (Luke 10:7)

“For for this cause pay ye tribute also: for they are God’s ministers, attending continually upon this very thing. Render therefore to all their dues: tribute [tax, NASB] to whom tribute is due; custom to whom custom; fear to whom fear; honour to whom honour.”
(Romans 13:6-7)

“If we have sown unto you spiritual things, is it a great thing if we shall reap your carnal [material, NASB] things?.... Do ye not know that they which minister about holy things live of the things of the temple? and they which wait at the altar are partakers with the altar? Even so hath the Lord ordained that they which preach [or minister] the gospel should live of the gospel. (1 Corinthians 9:11-14)

“Let the elders that rule well be counted worthy of double honour, especially they who labour in the word and doctrine. For the scripture saith, Thou shalt not muzzle the ox that treadeth out the corn. And, The labourer is worthy of his reward.” (1 Timothy 5:17-18)

21. “Do not lay hands upon anyone too hastily and thus share responsibility for the sins of others....” (1 Timothy 5:22, NASB)

See also 1 Samuel 14:26-45 and 1 Chronicles 21:1-14.

22. “If a false witness rise up against any man to testify against him that which is wrong; then both the men, between whom the controversy is, shall stand before Yahweh, before the priests and the judges, which shall be in those days; and the judges shall make diligent inquisition: and, behold, if the witness be a false witness, and hath testified falsely against his brother; then shall ye do unto him, as he had thought to have done unto his brother: so shalt thou put the evil away from among you. And those which remain shall hear, and fear, and shall henceforth commit no more any such evil among you. And thine eye shall not pity; but life shall go for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot.”
(Deuteronomy 19:16-21)

23. First Commandment violations: Exodus 22:18; 22:20; Leviticus 20:27; Deuteronomy 13:1-10; 17:2-5, 9-13; 18:20; 19:16- 21; Luke 19:27; Romans 1:30-32;
1 Timothy 1:10

Second Commandment violations: Exodus 22:20; Deuteronomy 13:1-10; Romans 1:30-32

Third Commandment violations: Leviticus 24:10-16, 23; Deuteronomy 19:16-21; John 10:30-33; 1 Timothy 1:9-10

Fourth Commandment violations: Exodus 31:14-15; 35:2; Numbers 15:32-36; Deuteronomy 19:16-21; 1 Timothy 1:10

Fifth Commandment violations: Exodus 21:15, 17; Leviticus 20:9; Deuteronomy 19:16-21; 21:18-23; Matthew 15:4; Romans 1:30-32; 1 Timothy 1:10

Sixth Commandment violations: Genesis 9:5-6; Exodus 21:12, 14, 16, 22-25, 28-31; Leviticus 20:2; 24:17, 21; Numbers 35:16-21, 30-31, 33-34; Deuteronomy 19:11-13, 16-21; 24:7; Romans 1:29-32; 1 Timothy 1:10

Seventh Commandment violations: Exodus 22:19; Leviticus 20:10, 11-12, 13, 15-16; 21:9;Deuteronomy 19:16-21; 22:13- 21, 22-24, 25-27; John 8:3-5; Romans 1:26-32;
1 Timothy 1:10

24. “[I]f any mischief follow, then thou shalt give life for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, burning for burning, wound for wound, stripe for stripe.”
(Exodus 21:23-25)

“And he that killeth a beast shall make it good; beast for beast. ...if a man cause a blemish in his neighbour; as he hath done, so shall it be done to him; breach for breach, eye for eye, tooth for tooth: as he hath caused a blemish in a man, so shall it be done to him again.”
(Leviticus 24:18-20)

“If a false witness rise up against any man to testify against him that which is wrong; then both the men, between whom the controversy is, shall stand before Yahweh, before the priests and the judges, which shall be in those days; and the judges shall make diligent inquisition: and, behold, if the witness be a false witness, and hath testified falsely against his brother; then shall ye do unto him, as he had thought to have done unto his brother: so shalt thou put the evil away from among you.” (Deuteronomy 19:16-21)

“When men strive together one with another, and the wife of the one draweth near for to deliver her husband out of the hand of him that smiteth him, and putteth forth her hand, and taketh him by the secrets: Then thou shalt cut off her hand, thine eye shall not pity her.” (Deuteronomy 25:11-12)

“And if men have a quarrel and one strikes the other with a stone or with his fist, and he does not die but remains in bed; if he gets up and walks around outside on his staff, then he who struck him shall go unpunished; he shall only pay for his loss of time, and shall take care of him until he is completely healed.” (Exodus 21:18-19, NASB)

25. “If a man shall steal an ox, or a sheep, and kill it, or sell it; he shall restore five oxen for an ox, and four sheep for a sheep. If a thief be found breaking up, and be smitten that he die, there shall no blood be shed for him. If the sun be risen upon him, there shall be blood shed for him; for he should make full restitution; if he have nothing, then he shall be sold for his theft. If the theft be certainly found in his hand alive, whether it be ox, or ass, or sheep; he shall restore double. If a man shall cause a field or vineyard to be eaten, and shall put in his beast, and shall feed in another man's field; of the best of his own field, and of the best of his own vineyard, shall he make restitution. If fire break out, and catch in thorns, so that the stacks of corn, or the standing corn, or the field, be consumed therewith; he that kindled the fire shall surely make restitution. If a man shall deliver unto his neighbour money or stuff to keep, and it be stolen out of the man’s house; if the thief be found, let him pay double. If the thief be not found, then the master of the house shall be brought unto the judges, to see whether he have put his hand unto his neighbour’s goods. For all manner of trespass, whether it be for ox, for ass, for sheep, for raiment, or for any manner of lost thing, which another challengeth to be his, the cause of both parties shall come before the judges; and whom the judges shall condemn, he shall pay double unto his neighbour. If a man deliver unto his neighbour an ass, or an ox, or a sheep, or any beast, to keep; and it die, or be hurt, or driven away, no man seeing it: Then shall an oath of Yahweh be between them both, that he hath not put his hand unto his neighbour’s goods; and the owner of it shall accept thereof, and he shall not make it good. And if it be stolen from him, he shall make restitution unto the owner thereof. If it be torn in pieces, then let him bring it for witness, and he shall not make good that which was torn. And if a man borrow ought of his neighbour, and it be hurt, or die, the owner thereof being not with it, he shall surely make it good. But if the owner thereof be with it, he shall not make it good: if it be an hired thing, it came for his hire.” (Exodus 22:1-15)

“And if men have a quarrel and one strikes the other with a stone or with his fist, and he does not die but remains in bed; if he gets up and walks around outside on his staff, then he who struck him shall go unpunished; he shall only pay for his loss of time, and shall take care of him until he is completely healed.” (Exodus 21:18-19, NASB)

26. “[H]e should make full restitution; if he have nothing, then he shall be sold for his theft.” (Exodus 22:3)

27. “[I]f the wicked man be worthy to be beaten, that the judge shall cause him to lie down, and to be beaten before his face, according to his fault, by a certain number. Forty stripes he may give him, and not exceed: lest, if he should exceed, and beat him above these with many stripes, then thy brother should seem vile unto thee.” (Deuteronomy 25:2-3)

See also Proverbs 10:13, 19:29, and 26:3.

28. “[T]hey put him [a blasphemer] in ward, that the mind of Yahweh might be shewed them.” (Leviticus 24:12)

“[T]hey put him [a Sabbath violator] in ward, because it was not [yet] declared what should be done to him.” (Numbers 15:34)

29. “He that is surety for a stranger shall smart for it: and he that hateth suretiship is sure.” (Proverbs 11:15)

“A man void of understanding striketh hands, and becometh surety in the presence of his friend.” (Proverbs 17:18)

“Boast not thyself of to morrow; for thou knowest not what a day may bring forth.”
(Proverbs 27:1)

30. “If someone is officially summoned to give evidence in court and does not give information about something he has seen or heard, he must suffer the consequences…. When a person is guilty, he must confess the sin.” (Leviticus 5:1, 5, TEV)

See also Acts 5:1-6.

31. “If thy brother, the son of thy mother, or thy son, or thy daughter, or the wife of thy bosom, or thy friend, which is as thine own soul, entice thee secretly, saying, Let us go and serve other gods, which thou hast not known…. Thou shalt not consent unto him, nor hearken unto him; neither shall thine eye pity him, neither shalt thou spare, neither shalt thou conceal him: But thou shalt surely kill him; thine hand shall be first upon him to put him to death, and afterwards the hand of all the people. And thou shalt stone him with stones, that he die; because he hath sought to thrust thee away from Yahweh thy God….”
(Deuteronomy 13:6-10)

See also Acts 5:7-10.

32. “If a soul sin, and commit a trespass against Yahweh, and lie unto his neighbour … or hath deceived his neighbour … and sweareth falsely [in a court of law]…. Then it shall be, because he … is guilty, that he shall restore that which he took violently away, or the thing which he hath deceitfully gotten, or that which was delivered him to keep, or the lost thing which he found, or all that about which he hath sworn falsely; he shall even restore it in the principal [in full, NASB, meaning the required restitution], and shall add the fifth part more thereto, and give it unto him to whom it appertaineth....” (Leviticus 6:2-5)

33. “If a soul commit a trespass, and sin through ignorance, in the holy things of Yahweh; then he shall bring for his trespass unto Yahweh a ram without blemish out of the flocks, with thy estimation by shekels of silver, after the shekel of the sanctuary, for a trespass offering: And he shall make amends for the harm that he hath done in the holy thing, and shall add the fifth part thereto, and give it unto the priest: and the priest shall make an atonement for him with the ram of the trespass offering, and it shall be forgiven him.” (Leviticus 5:15-16)

“And Yahweh spake unto Moses, saying, ... When a man or woman shall commit any sin that men commit, to do a trespass against Yahweh, and that person be guilty; then they shall confess their sin which they have done: and he shall recompense his trespass with the principal thereof, and add unto it the fifth part thereof, and give it unto him against whom he hath trespassed. But if the man have no kinsman to recompense the trespass unto, let the trespass be recompensed unto Yahweh, even to the priest; beside the ram of the atonement, whereby an atonement shall be made for him.” (Numbers 5:5-8)

34. “If a soul sin, and commit a trespass against Yahweh, and lie unto his neighbour in that which was delivered him to keep, or in fellowship, or in a thing taken away by violence, or hath deceived his neighbour; or have found that which was lost, and lieth concerning it, and sweareth falsely; in any of all these that a man doeth, sinning therein: Then it shall be, because he hath sinned, and is guilty, that he shall restore that which he took violently away, or the thing which he hath deceitfully gotten, or that which was delivered him to keep, or the lost thing which he found, or all that about which he hath sworn falsely; he shall even restore it in the principal, and shall add the fifth part more thereto, and give it unto him to whom it appertaineth, in the day of his trespass offering.” (Leviticus 6:2-5)

See also Exodus 22:1-15.

35. “[S]urely your blood of your lives will I require; at the hand of every beast will I require it, and at the hand of man ... will I require the life of man. Whoso sheddeth man’s blood, by man shall his blood be shed: for in the image of God made he man.” (Genesis 9:5-6)

“[Y]e shall take no satisfaction [remuneration] for the life of a murderer, which is guilty of death: but he shall be surely put to death.... So ye shall not pollute the land wherein ye are: for blood it defileth the land: and the land cannot be cleansed of the blood that is shed therein, but by the blood of him that shed it.” (Numbers 35:31-33)

“[I]f a man come presumptuously upon his neighbour, to slay him with guile; thou shalt take him from mine altar, that he may die.” (Exodus 21:14)

36. “If an ox gore a man or a woman, that they die: then the ox shall be surely stoned, and his flesh shall not be eaten; but the owner of the ox shall be quit. But if the ox were wont to push with his horn in time past, and it hath been testified to his owner, and he hath not kept him in, but that he hath killed a man or a woman; the ox shall be stoned, and his owner also shall be put to death. If there be laid on him a sum of money, then he shall give for the ransom of his life whatsoever is laid upon him.” (Exodus 21:28-30)

37. Leviticus 20:2, 7; 24:16; Numbers 15:32-34; Deuteronomy 13:6-10; 17:2-5; 21:20-21; 22:20-21, 23-24.

38. “[T]hou shalt stone him [an advocate of false gods] with stones…. And all Israel shall hear, and fear, and shall do no more any such wickedness as this is among you.”
(Deuteronomy 13:10-11)

See also Deuteronomy 17:12-13, 19:18-21, 21:20-21; Proverbs 21:11, 21:15; and 1 Timothy 5:20.

39. “But if any man hate his neighbour, and lie in wait for him, and rise up against him, and smite him mortally that he die, and fleeth into one of these cities: Then the elders of his city shall send and fetch him thence, and deliver him into the hand of the avenger of blood, that he may die.” (Deuteronomy 19:11-12)

40. “Then shalt thou bring forth that man or that woman, which have committed that wicked thing, unto thy gates, even that man or that woman, and shalt stone them with stones, till they die. At the mouth of two witnesses, or three witnesses, shall he that is worthy of death be put to death; but at the mouth of one witness he shall not be put to death. The hands of the witnesses shall be first upon him to put him to death, and afterward the hands of all the people. So thou shalt put the evil away from among you.” (Deuteronomy 17:5-7)

41. “[H]e that blasphemeth the name of Yahweh, he shall surely be put to death, and all the congregation shall certainly stone him: as well the stranger, as he that is born in the land....” (Leviticus 24:16)

“But thou shalt surely kill him [an advocate of false gods]; thine hand [the hands of those related to the convicted party] shall be first upon him to put him to death, and afterwards the hand of all the people.” (Deuteronomy 13:9)

“The hands of the witnesses shall be first upon him [a worshiper of false gods] to put him to death, and afterward the hands of all the people. So thou shalt put the evil away from among you.” (Deuteronomy 17:7)

42. “[H]e shall surely be stoned, or shot through; whether it be beast or man, it shall not live....” (Exodus 19:13)

43. “And thou shalt come unto … the judge that shall be in those days, and inquire; and they shall shew thee the sentence of judgment: And thou shalt … observe to do according to all that they inform thee: …thou shalt not decline from the sentence which they shall shew thee, to the right hand, nor to the left. And the man that will do presumptuously, and will not hearken unto … the judge, even that man shall die: and thou shalt put away the evil from Israel. And all the people shall hear, and fear, and do no more presumptuously.” (Deuteronomy 17:9-13)

44. “If a false witness rise up against any man to testify against him that which is wrong; then both the men, between whom the controversy is, shall stand before Yahweh, before the priests and the judges, which shall be in those days; and the judges shall make diligent inquisition....” (Deuteronomy 19:16-18)

45. “Then shall an oath of Yahweh be between them both....” (Exodus 22:11)

“If any man trespass against his neighbour, and an oath be laid upon him to cause him to swear, and the oath come before thine altar in this house: Then hear thou in heaven, and do, and judge thy servants, condemning the wicked, to bring his way upon his head; and justifying the righteous, to give him according to his righteousness.” (1 Kings 8:31-32)

“They clave to their brethren, their nobles, and entered into a curse, and into an oath, to walk in God’s law ... and to observe and do all the commandments of Yahweh our Lord, and his judgments and his statutes....” (Nehemiah 10:29)

“For men verily swear by the greater: and an oath for confirmation is to them an end of all strife.” (Hebrews 6:16)

46. “Now if a person sins, after he hears a public adjuration to testify, when he is a witness, whether he has seen or otherwise known, if he does not tell it, then he will bear his guilt.... So it shall be when he becomes guilty in one of these, that he shall confess that in which he has sinned.” (Leviticus 5:1, 5, NASB)

“If thy brother, the son of thy mother, or thy son, or thy daughter, or the wife of thy bosom, or thy friend, which is as thine own soul, entice thee secretly, saying, Let us go and serve other gods ... thou shalt not consent unto him, nor hearken unto him; neither shall thine eye pity him, neither shalt thou spare, neither shalt thou conceal him: But thou shalt surely kill him; thine hand shall be first upon him to put him to death, and afterwards the hand of all the people.” (Deuteronomy 13:6-9)

See also Acts 5:1-11.

47. “One witness shall not rise up against a man for any iniquity, or for any sin, in any sin that he sinneth: at the mouth of two witnesses, or at the mouth of three witnesses, shall the matter be established.” (Deuteronomy 19:15)

“[I]n the mouth of two or three witnesses shall every word be established.”
(2 Corinthians 13:1)

48. “Then shalt thou bring forth that man or that woman, which have committed that wicked thing, unto thy gates, even that man or that woman, and shalt stone them with stones, till they die. At the mouth of two witnesses, or three witnesses, shall he that is worthy of death be put to death; but at the mouth of one witness he shall not be put to death. The hands of the witnesses shall be first upon him to put him to death, and afterward the hands of all the people. So thou shalt put the evil away from among you.” (Deuteronomy 17:5-7)

49. “If a false witness rise up against any man to testify against him that which is wrong; then both the men, between whom the controversy is, shall stand before Yahweh, before the priests and the judges, which shall be in those days; and the judges shall make diligent inquisition: and, behold, if the witness be a false witness, and hath testified falsely against his brother; then shall ye do unto him, as he had thought to have done unto his brother: so shalt thou put the evil away from among you. And those which remain shall hear, and fear, and shall henceforth commit no more any such evil among you. And thine eye shall not pity; but life shall go for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot.”
(Deuteronomy 19:16-21)

50. “Judges and officers shalt thou make thee in all thy gates [to the main entrance to every city and town] ... and they shall judge the people with just judgment.” (Deuteronomy 16:18)

51. “Then shalt thou bring forth that man or that woman, which have committed that wicked thing, unto thy gates, even that man or that woman, and shalt stone them with stones, till they die.” (Deuteronomy 17:2-5)

52. “[H]e that blasphemeth the name of Yahweh, he shall surely be put to death, and all the congregation shall certainly stone him: as well the stranger, as he that is born in the land, when he blasphemeth the name of Yahweh, shall be put to death.” (Leviticus 24:13-16)

“But thou shalt surely kill him [an advocate of false gods]; thine hand [the hands of those related to the convicted party] shall be first upon him to put him to death, and afterwards the hand of all the people.” (Deuteronomy 13:9)

“The hands of the witnesses shall be first upon him to put him to death, and afterward the hands of all the people. So thou shalt put the evil away from among you.” (Deuteronomy 17:7)

53. And Joshua, and all Israel with him, took Achan.... And all Israel stoned him with stones, and burned them with fire, after they had stoned them with stones. And they raised over him a great heap of stones unto this day....” (Joshua 7:24-26)

54. “And if any mischief follow, then thou shalt give life for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, burning for burning, wound for wound, stripe for stripe.”
(Exodus 21:23-25)

55. “Then shall ye do unto him, as he had thought to have done unto his brother: so shalt thou put the evil away from among you. And those which remain shall hear, and fear, and shall henceforth commit no more any such evil among you. And thine eye shall not pity; but life shall go for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot.”
(Deuteronomy 19:19-21)

56. “If there be laid on him a sum of money, then he shall give for the ransom of his life whatsoever is laid upon him.” (Exodus 21:30)

57. “And if men have a quarrel and one strikes the other with a stone or with his fist, and he does not die but remains in bed; if he gets up and walks around outside on his staff, then he who struck him shall go unpunished; he shall only pay for his loss of time, and shall take care of him until he is completely healed.” (Exodus 21:18, NASB)

58. “If there be laid on him a sum of money, then he shall give for the ransom of his life whatsoever is laid upon him. Whether he have gored a son, or have gored a daughter, according to this judgment shall it be done unto him. If the ox shall push a manservant or a maidservant; he shall give unto their master thirty shekels of silver, and the ox shall be stoned. And if a man shall open a pit, or if a man shall dig a pit, and not cover it, and an ox or an ass fall therein; the owner of the pit shall make it good, and give money unto the owner of them; and the dead beast shall be his.” (Exodus 21:30-34)

“When thou buildest a new house, then thou shalt make a battlement [railing] for thy roof, that thou bring not blood upon thine house, if any man fall from thence.” (Deuteronomy 22:8)


Conclusion

For the weapons of our warfare are not of the flesh, but divinely powerful for the destruction of fortresses. We are destroying speculations and every lofty thing raised up against the knowledge of God, and we are taking every thought captive to the obedience of Christ, and we are ready to punish all disobedience, whenever your obedience is complete. (2 Corinthians 10:4-6)

Each generation’s Christians are entrusted with the same commission: to love Yahweh their God with all their heart, soul, and mind and to seek first His kingdom and His righteousness. This is our duty as individuals, as families, and as a society.

[B]ecause of all this we make a sure covenant, and write it ... and seal it. [We furthermore enter] a curse, and into an oath, to walk in God’s law ... to observe and do all the commandments of Yahweh our Lord, and his judgments and his statutes. (Nehemiah 9:38, 10:29)

May Yahweh inspire and empower those who at a future point in history will be entrusted with implementing His perfect law of liberty as society’s standard. May He stir, embolden, and protect those of us now who are entrusted and obliged to lay the groundwork for that future generation.

But thanks be to God, which giveth us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ. Therefore, my beloved brethren, be ye steadfast, unmoveable, always abounding in the work of the Lord, forasmuch as ye know that your labour is not in vain in the Lord. (1 Corinthians 15:57-58)

Related Posts:

Law and Kingdom: Their Relevance Under the New Covenant

Bible Law vs. the United States Constitution: The Christian Perspective

The Ten Commandment Series


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